Chris Bryant MP is consulting on a list of options for his private members bill (he was top of the list so guaranteed debate time).

One of the options is a bill on restricting the marketing of food high in sugar, salt and fat (HFSS) and mandatory traffic lights labelling on food products. This is supported by the Obesity Health Alliance, which we're a member of.

We need as many votes as possible for this bill so please vote and share this with your family, friends and colleagues to encourage them to vote.  

The link is here: https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/5FTGNGW

NB. From the options please put Food (advertising and labelling) first.

Kayhan Nouri-Aria

09:57, 07 Jul 2017 by Michael Baber
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After 13 years of heavy smoking and many attempts to quit I finally managed to smoke my last cigarette on 19 December 2015. I have since gone over 500 days without heeding the little evil voice in my head (“Just one more!”). I am incredibly proud as quitting smoking has possibly been the hardest thing I’ve ever done in my life. But it’s possible to do it and anyone else can do it too. So let’s see what helped me chuck all my lighters in the bin and bring about the biggest health behaviour change of my life. And how this fits with behaviour change theories.

Normative Beliefs 

People are inherently influenced by what others around them think. This probably played a role for me too. On moving to the UK it was a bit of shock that it was ‘abnormal’ to be a smoker in my age group rather than the other way around, as in Hungary. Also some of my closest friends were giving up smoking and I genuinely envied them for being smoke free and having a healthy radiance. The constant pleas from them to quit as well as from my boyfriend and mom also influenced me. These ‘Normative Appeals’ – facing up to the fact that the normal thing to do is not to smoke and that people around me expect me to quit – were a big push to make the change.

Health Belief Model

The Health Belief Model is pretty much weighing up the costs (in this case, the awful withdrawal symptoms), and benefits (in this case, too many to list) of making the change, how likely these were to happen and how serious the consequences would be, on quite a rational level. 

As far as I am concerned, completely true. The information I came across on the benefits of stopping smoking used to be quite general (along the lines of “You will be less likely to get cancer”). They made me aware that it is unhealthy to smoke and that I should quit, but they were too intangible. I wasn't prompted to actually make the effort to kick the habit and keep it up when it is hard. The same way “Smoking can kill” on the cigarette box with the horrible pictures felt too distant to apply to myself there and then, so I looked for a trendy cigarette box on e-Bay rather than quitting. 

Then one day I came across a chart on what happens to your body after you smoke your last cigarette - in 20 minutes, 8 hours, 48 hours and so on. That really struck a chord. The chart stayed with me through the darkest moments of my journey. Fighting to reach the 8-hour mark to enjoy normal oxygen levels, and the 48-hour mark for the satisfaction of knowing there is no more hated nicotine in my body and to see if my taste and smell will really improve, was easier than just generally fighting for better health later on. It made my progress specific and achievable and it felt like all that suffering was worth it because it had a tangible result. 

Similarly, in the first few weeks of quitting I had the opportunity to measure my carbon monoxide level by a simple breath test. It was incredibly satisfying to see the numbers on the screen showing how it was decreasing week on week and to understand how oxygen can now take over carbon monoxide’s place in my red blood cells, making it easier for my heart to work and less likely for me to give out ridiculous noises when walking up the escalator at Oxford Circus (which is really not cool for a twenty-something year old). Specific, tangible, and even (in)audible. 

Another tangible benefit was not handing over an eye-watering amount of money to tobacco companies. I made the promise to myself that if I make it to the 3-week mark I will buy a gift to my mom and dad, something they would really like but they would not buy for themselves. My mom got a nice summer dress and my dad a couple of nice handkerchiefs and a note that they are the tangible evidence for me having quit smoking for good. They were over the moon, which made me feel extremely good too. 

Self-efficacy 

Seeing my progress through the time milestones and decreasing carbon monoxide levels was also very important, especially when I needed convincing stuff to tell myself during strong urges. The belief that you can do it, which is called self-efficacy, is a powerful motivator to make a start on quitting and to keep it up when it hurts the most. Why bother if you are unlikely to reap the benefits? 

As time progressed this belief just got stronger and stronger as I saw my carbon monoxide levels decreasing and I was clocking in time milestones with the same joy as collecting coins when travelling through Mushroom Kingdom with Super Mario in the 1990s. It is also one of the main principles of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) that you need positive thoughts and interpretations to replace the negatives that are holding you back. 

After each ‘first’ risk situation I survived without lighting a cigarette – the first morning, the first time someone offered me a cigarette, the first argument, the first time I was exhausted, the first time meeting up with smoking friends (I did skip many social events just to avoid this!), the first article written (I had the habit of smoking after each section), the first time drinking alcohol, the first conversation with someone smoking a cigarette right in front of me - it helped me feel even more convinced that this time I will make it. 

Also, I had lots of positive case studies around me to encourage me including my closest friends, who had successfully quit before I did. This, combined with thinking that lighting a cigarette would flush all the efforts and suffering I went through down the toilet, being unable to reap the benefits of my arduous effort, kept me going. 

‘Cues to action’ theory 

Research from Health Action Campaign shows that people with less motivation to change their behaviour sometimes experience trigger points in their lives when they are more likely to make changes. These can include getting married, having children, or a loved one developing serious health problems. These events can serve as a cue to action. In my case I had just finished university, had started my career and was in a serious relationship with a view to potentially have children in a few years’ time. So I felt settled and I was planning to quit at some point. My cue to action was a leaflet advising that my workplace was launching a free stop smoking clinic through the NHS. This was my time. 

The weekly sessions gave structure to my attempt to quit, and suddenly it mattered because having signed up I was accountable to my counsellor, and I was expected to quit there and then by her, the people around me and indeed myself (hello Normative Belief!). My awesome counsellor also kept telling me I would make it because I was approaching it in such a determined way and I believed her (hello Self-efficacy!). She provided the carbon monoxide device and took my levels every week to show my progress, so I had something positive to focus on (hello Cognitive Behavioural Therapy!) and I was seeing very tangibly how I was already reaping the benefits (hello Health Belief Model!). 

Behavioural economics 

People tend to favour immediately enjoying something as opposed to long term benefits. This isn’t a friend to people trying to stop smoking. When you are having a strong urge to smoke, and the little evil voice in your head is throwing a tantrum shouting “Just one more!”, it is extremely difficult for your brain to come to terms with the thought that “I know I could ease this horrible feeling very simply but I won’t do it because I am working towards long-term benefits.” However, if you know this, it is easier to counteract it. I measured how long the urge pikes lasted, so I knew that most of the time I just needed to survive a couple of minutes and I would be fine. Yes, it did happen a few times that I was literally staring at a clock for 2 minutes, and it worked. 

And there is a trick too. Luckily, we are also more motivated by the prospect of losing something we already value than by possible future gain. In my case, by smoking a cigarette I would have been risking losing my 24/48/72/96/1000 hours clocked which I was very proud of. I was risking losing my finally healthy carbon monoxide levels. I was risking losing my sense of achievement and people’s recognition of my efforts. I was risking the right to loudly declare that I don’t smoke anymore when offered a cigarette. I was risking losing all ‘my firsts’ I survived without a cigarette. Most of all, I was risking losing the belief that I am ever able to quit smoking, after all those attempts when I didn’t manage. So start counting now! 

Zsuzsanna Matyak

The NHS hasn’t collapsed – yet. But it is clearly in serious difficulty.

  • At least 23 hospitals have had to issue ‘black alerts’ - meaning they were unable to guarantee life-saving emergency care.
  • Record numbers of patients were having to wait for 12 hours or more in A & E.
  • Eight out of ten hospital trusts are operating in deficit, with closures planned to try to balance their budgets.

So what has caused this crisis? We believe there are three fundamental causes that need to be addressed.

First, there needs to be an honest discussion with the electorate about the cost of medical care and then consider whether funding or public expectations need to change.

That is important because the UK has:

  • Fewer doctors per head of the population than most other EU countries - 2.8 doctors per 1000 people compared with 4.9 in Spain and 4.8 in Austria.
  • Fewer hospital beds per head of the population – less than 300 per 100,000 people, compared with an EU average of 521.

Second, there needs to be similar discussion about social care.

More older people need care every year but there have been cuts of £4.6 billion in social care since 2010. This is exacerbating pressure on the NHS, with bed blocking a national scandal – elderly patients trapped in hospital beds that are needed for other patients because of lack of care available for them outside hospital.

However, we believe there is a third and more fundamental point. Here in the UK we don’t have a National Health Service.

Despite its name the NHS is actually a national sickness service. Over 95% of its resources are committed to waiting until people fall ill or have an accident and then treating them. Less than 5% is committed to preventing people falling ill in the first place i.e. ensuring national health.

This matters because so much of the illness we see in the UK is preventable and is caused by:

  • Smoking
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Unhealthy diets
  • Lack of exercise
  • Lack of hope and purpose in life

However, we all know that prevention is better than cure. So if we’re serious about ensuring a sustainable NHS, we need to tackle preventable illness.

Whatever our analysis there are no quick fixes.

  • To ensure we have as many doctors and hospital beds as our European neighbours will take years (and billions of pounds) to achieve, as doctors need years of training.
  • Reversing the £4.6 billion of cuts in social care would be more achievable and would provide some quicker, short term relief. However, with an ageing population, more funding or more imaginative approaches to social care would soon be needed.
  • Tackling preventable illness offers the best long term solution. It would reduce demand for both medical treatment and social care and help the NHS become financially sustainable again. However, any government would also need to manage a transition period. Before the benefits start to show through there will still be pressure on A & E waiting lists and GP appointments to manage.

Here are three initial recommendations:

  1. Set a target, in the government’s new Industrial Strategy, for the UK food and drink industry to become global market leader in the mass production of healthier food i.e. lower in sugar, salt and saturated fats and higher in dietary fibre. This should be good for business and good for the nation’s health - starting to address the issue of unhealthy diets at source.
  2. Incentivize organisations to improve the health of employees. This should be a win win for employers – meaning fewer sick days lost, enhanced productivity and improved morale. One simple step would be to add a new indicator to Investors in People accreditation i.e. supporting the physical and mental health of employees.
  3. Increase funding for medical schools and university nursing degree courses, to expand the number of UK health professionals on condition that the medical schools and universities amend their curriculum to include a focus on preventative health – to enable ‘health professionals’ to begin to truly focus on health and not simply the treatment of illness.
18:21, 04 Mar 2017 by Michael Baber
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